Creation Science Articles
How God Used Evolution
Copyright 2004 G.R. Morton. This can be freely
distributed so long as no changes are made and no charges are made.
On the web forum Theology
web, a gentleman asked how theistic evolutionists thought God worked
in evolution. I wrote this to answer that question.
To answer the question I
must explain some systems I have studied. During one period of my
life I put in a lot of study of nonlinear iterative systems, systems
with chaos and systems without. One of the systems which interested
me most is called Sierpinski's Gasket.
If you take a dot on a
computer screen and randomly move it around the screen, no pattern
will arise. It will be chaos. But if you add some rules to the
random motion, you can create some interesting mathematical objects.
In the case of Sierpinski's gasket, one starts with 3 fixed points
and one movable point. The moveable point can be placed anywhere on
the plane, it really doesn't matter where. The 3 fixed points are
placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle. Label them A, B,
and C. Then take a die and roll it. If you roll a 1 or a 2, move the
movable point half the distance from where it is to point A; if you
roll a 3, or a 4 move half the distance to point B, and for a 5 or 6
half the distance to point C. Mark each point that the moveable
point lands on. do this for 30-40,000 times and you will end up with
The thing that fascinates me
about Sierpinski's gasket is that regardless of the random
directions I move the moveable point (in other words regardless of
the sequence of die rolls, I will deterministically end up with the
same picture. This feature unites chance and determinism into one
The big fear that the
Christian anti-evolutionists have of evolution concerns chance. They
think God can't control chance. Chance is controlled by the rules.
Then one day at lunch when I
was bored, I decided to program the gasket in from memory. I messed
up the program and got some really strange shape. I saved the
program meaning to bring in a copy of the program from home to see
what I had done wrong. But I forgot the next day, so I tried again
to program it from memory and I screwed up again but got a different
shape. When I finally compared the 3 programs, I realized that I had
stumbled onto a mathematical system of programs which can be mutated
and create new shapes as they are mutated. When I formalized this, I
found that the system actually mimicked punctuated equilibrium. some
mutations brought minor changes, but then suddenly after 5 or 6 with
only minor changes, a mutation would occur which made a major change
to the computer object. This can be seen in the following picture:
That is the first panel in a
sequence. Starting with a dot shape, mutation gradually changes it
to very different 2d shapes. The next picture is the next set of 40
One can see the punc-eq in
What I believe is that God
set up the evolutionary system. And far from being due to chance,
the rules of mutation would inevitably lead to us as happens when
chance is united with rules and deterministically produces
Sierpinski's gasket. Thus, I have no problem with chance and no
problem with God being able to predetermine the outcome. I
predetermine the outcome every time I run Sierpinski's gasket. I
can't predict the exact set of die rolls, but I can predict that the
gasket will appear at the end of the process.
I even can mimic the
Cambrian explosion. In the following pics, each box represents a
lineage which is mutated independently of all other boxes. I start
with all 'organisms' as a clone. This looks like:
All animals are mutated, but
each is mutated in its own way and after 1 generation of mutation,
the screen 'organisms' look like:
One clearly sees
diversification in shape. The first two boxed pics follow a single
lineage. The last 4 follow 40 different lineages.
Because of this type of
outcome of iterative, mutational systems in mathematics I see no
reason why this can't happen when the shapes are 3 dimensional
rather than 2 dimensional.
So to answer the question, I
believe God designed a system which would irrevocably lead to us.
This view is not that much different from the outlook Simon Conway
Morris holds. He believes that if you re-ran the tape of life that
you would get essentially the same thing. Why? because over and over
life has solved the same problems in the very same way. This is
clearly a different view from Gould, who thought you would get an
entirely different end result. Before going blindly with Gould, who
was a very smart individual, one really should see Conway Morris'
presentation on this issue.
I also believe this solves
the YEC fear of chance in biological systems.
Did you know that you can be a Christian,
and believe that the earth is billions of years old? The
author of this article, Glenn Morton, made the transition from young
earth creationism to old earth creationism. To learn more
about old earth creationism, see
Old Earth Belief,
or check out the article
Can You Be A
Christian and Believe in an Old Earth?
Feel free to check out more of this website. Our goal is to
provide rebuttals to the bad science behind young earth creationism,
and honor God by properly presenting His creation.